The Particulars: Research indicates that restenosis is a common drawback of balloon angioplasty for treating infrapopliteal arterial obstructions in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Two major mechanisms—elastic recoil and neointimal hyperplasia—that may lead to restenosis after balloon angioplasty are not well understood.

Data Breakdown: Swiss investigators conducted a study to assess the extent of early recoil in patients with CLI who underwent tibial arterial balloon angioplasty. Elastic recoil was found in 96.7% of lesions, with a mean luminal compromise of 29.4%.

Take Home Pearls: Early recoil appears to occur relatively frequently in patients with CLI who undergo tibial balloon angioplastly and may significantly contribute to restenosis. These findings support the use of dedicated mechanical scaffolding approaches to prevent restenosis in tibial arteries.