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Uremia does not affect neointima formation in mice.

Uremia does not affect neointima formation in mice.

Scientific reports 2017 07 267(1) 6496 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-06816-6 Abstract Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a major complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD leads to uremia, which modulates the phenotype of aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Phenotypic modulation of SMCs plays a key role in accelerating atherosclerosis. We investigated the hypothesis that uremia potentiates neointima formation in response to vascular injury in mice. Carotid wire injury was performed on C57BL/6 wt and apolipoprotein E knockout (Apoe (-/-)) mice two weeks after induction of uremia by 5/6 nephrectomy. Wire injury led to neointima formation and downregulation of genes encoding classical SMC markers (i.e., myocardin, α-smooth muscle actin, SM22-alpha, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain) in both wt and Apoe (-/-) mice. Contrary to our expectations, uremia did not potentiate neointima formation, nor did it affect intimal lesion composition as judged from magnetic resonance imaging and histological analyses. Also, there was no effect of uremia on SMC marker gene expression in the injured carotid arteries, suggesting that there may be different effects of uremia on SMCs in different vascular beds. In conclusion, uremia does not accelerate neointima formation in response to wire injury of the carotid artery in...
Failure in Cognitive Suppression of Negative Affect in Adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Failure in Cognitive Suppression of Negative Affect in Adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Scientific reports 2017 07 267(1) 6583 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-07063-5 Abstract Hyperactivity of limbic (e.g., amygdalar) responses to negative stimuli has been implicated in the pathophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Evidence has also suggested that even a simple cognitive task involving emotionally salient stimuli can modulate limbic and prefrontal neural activation. However, whether neural modulation of emotional stimulus processing in a cognitive task is defective in adolescents with GAD has not yet been investigated. In this study, 20 adolescents with GAD and 14 comparable healthy controls underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) coupled with an emotional valence evaluation task. During the evaluation of negative versus neutral stimuli, we found significant activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in healthy controls, while the bilateral amygdala was activated in GAD patients. Between-group analyses showed dramatically reduced task-activation of the right IFG in GAD patients, and the magnitude of IFG activity negatively correlated with symptom severity. Psychophysiological interaction analysis further revealed significantly decreased functional interaction between right IFG and anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in GAD patients compared with healthy controls. Taken together, our findings show failure to suppress negative affect by recruiting a cognitive distraction in adolescents with GAD, providing new insights into the pathophysiology of...
Spleen contributes to restraint stress induced changes in blood leukocytes distribution.

Spleen contributes to restraint stress induced changes in blood leukocytes distribution.

Scientific reports 2017 07 267(1) 6501 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-06956-9 Abstract Psychological stress has great impacts on the immune system, particularly the leukocytes distribution. Although the impacts of acute stress on blood leukocytes distribution are well studied, however, it remains unclear how chronic stress affects leukocytes distribution in peripheral circulation. Furthermore, there is no report about the role of spleen in the blood leukocytes distribution induced by stress. Here we show that spleen contributes to the alteration of restraint stress induced blood leukocytes distribution. Our data confirmed that restraint stress induced anxiety-like behavior in mice. Furthermore, we found that restraint stress decreased the CD4/CD8 ratio and elevated the percentages of natural killer cells, monocytes and polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cell. We demonstrated that activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) contributes to restraint stress induced alteration of blood leukocyte distribution. Interestingly, we found that splenectomy could reverse the change of CD4/CD8 ratio induced by restraint stress. Together, our findings suggest that activation of HPA axis and SNS was responsible for the blood leukocyte subsets changes induced by restraint stress. Spleen, at least in part, contributed to the alteration in peripheral circulation induced by restraint...
Underestimated Male Prevalence of Primary Biliary Cholangitis in China: Results of a 16-yr cohort study involving 769 patients.

Underestimated Male Prevalence of Primary Biliary Cholangitis in China: Results of a 16-yr cohort study involving 769 patients.

Scientific reports 2017 07 267(1) 6560 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-06807-7 Abstract For primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), a sex ratio was reported to be significantly lower than previously cited in the West; we sought to evaluate sex ratio and long-term outcomes in PBC by studying a PBC cohort at a high-volume hospital from January 2001 to July 2016. A retrospective analysis including 769 PBC patients was conducted. The gender ratio was 6.1:1. Of the patients, 30.6% had one or more extrahepatic autoimmune (EHA) conditions. The proportion of patients with decompensated PBC at diagnosis increased from 25.0% in period 1 to 47.0% in period 4...
Dietary patterns reflecting healthy food choices are associated with lower serum LPS activity.

Dietary patterns reflecting healthy food choices are associated with lower serum LPS activity.

Scientific reports 2017 07 267(1) 6511 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-06885-7 Abstract Gram-negative bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are associated with various negative health effects. Whether diet is associated with LPS, is an understudied phenomenon. We investigated the association between diet and serum LPS activity in 668 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the FinnDiane Study. Serum LPS activity was determined using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate assay. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) section of a diet questionnaire and a food record. The food record was used to calculate energy, macronutrient, and fibre intake. In a multivariable model, energy, macronutrient, or fibre intake was not associated with the LPS activity. Using factor analysis, we identified seven dietary patterns from the FFQ data ("Sweet", "Cheese", "Fish", "Healthy snack", "Vegetable", "Traditional", and "Modern"). In a multivariable model, higher factor scores of the Fish, Healthy snack, and Modern patterns predicted lower LPS activity. The validity of the diet questionnaire was also investigated. The questionnaire showed reasonable relative validity against a 6-day food record. The two methods classified participants into the dietary patterns better than expected by chance. In conclusion, healthy dietary choices, such as consumption of fish, fresh vegetables, and fruits and berries may be associated with positive health outcomes by reducing systemic...
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