The decrease of vitamin D plays a critical role in diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced oxidative stress and vascular endothelial injury. Therefore, we investigated the effect and mechanism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25 (OH) D3) on oxidative stress and ferroptosis induced by high glucose in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMVECs). And the objective of this paper was to propose a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR).
First, hRMVECs were transfected with mimics NC or miR-93. After that, cells were treated with 100 nM / 500 nM 25 (OH) D3 and then cultured in a high glucose (30 mM) environment. Subsequently, qRT-PCR was employed to detect the expression level of miR-93; CCK-8 for the proliferation of cells in each group; biochemical tests for the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and ferrous ion (Fe); and Western blot for the expression of ferroptosis-related proteins glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and SLC7A11).
Under a high glucose environment, 25 (OH) D3 at 100 nM/500 nM could significantly promote the proliferation of hRMVECs, remarkably decrease the level of intracellular ROS/MDA, and up-regulate the level of GSH. Besides, 25 (OH) D3 greatly reduced Fe level in the cells while increased protein level of GPX4 and SLC7A11. Subsequently, we found that high glucose induced miR-93 expression, while 25 (OH) D3 markedly decreased high glucose-induced miR-93 overexpression. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-93 inhibited the functions of 25 (OH) D3 by activating ROS (ROS and MDA were up-regulated while GSH was down-regulated) and inducing Fe (Fe level was up-regulated while GPX4 and SLC7A11 level was down-regulated) in cells.
25 (OH) D3 may inhibit oxidative stress and ferroptosis in hRMVECs induced by high glucose via down-regulation of miR-93.

© 2023. The Author(s).