Influenza virus infections affect millions of people annually. Current available vaccines provide varying rates of protection. There is a knowledge gap on how the nasal microbiota, particularly established pneumococcal colonization, shapes the response to influenza vaccination. In this study, we inoculated healthy adults with live S. pneumoniae and vaccinated them three days later with either TIV or LAIV. Vaccine-induced immune responses were assessed in nose, blood and lung. Nasal pneumococcal colonization had no impact upon TIV-induced antibody responses to influenza, which manifested in all compartments. However, experimentally-induced pneumococcal colonization dampened LAIV-mediated mucosal antibody responses, primarily IgA in the nose and IgG in the lung. Pulmonary influenza-specific cellular responses were more apparent in the LAIV group compared to either TIV or an unvaccinated group. These results indicate that TIV and LAIV elicit differential immunity to adults and that LAIV immunogenicity is diminished by the nasal presence of S. pneumoniae. Therefore, nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization may affect LAIV efficacy.

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PubMed