To determine the incidence of non-traumatic subconjunctival hemorrhage (NTSH) in Indian rural population and analyze the associated risk factors.
The study included patients diagnosed having subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH) who attended the out-patient department (OPD) of ophthalmology. Demographic characteristics of subjects included age, gender, medical and ocular history, and location of hemorrhage.
The incidence rate of NTSH in this study was 3.07 per 1000 patients per year attending OPD. The men to women ratio for NTSH was 1.26 (95% CI). The commonest site of presentation was nasal side (n=36, 51.4%). Right eye (n= 37, 54.3%) was affected more than the left eye (n=28, 40%). The analysis showed 24 patients (34.3%) did not have any etiological factor attributable to SCH. Conjunctivochalasis (CCH) was associated in 15 patients (21.4%). An antiplatelet agent was associated with SCH in 7 patients (10%). Other factors associated with SCH were hypertension, leukemia, and anemia (n=6, 8.6%).
This study indicates that NTSH occurs in 3 out of 1000 individuals per year in the rural population presenting to the OPD. Nasal conjunctiva was commonly involved. CCH was associated with 15 patients. Use of antiplatelet agents, hypertension and blood disorders are associated with the risk of NTSH. Patients presenting for the first time with NTSH should be screened for systemic etiological factors.