The production environments of the German-Austrian Brown Swiss population show a wide range due to differences in topography, landscapes, local climates, and different farm management systems. Extensive production systems such as organic farming have become increasingly popular in recent decades because of interest in sustainability and consumer preferences. Compared with conventional farmers, organic farmers put more weight on fitness traits. Besides the official total merit index (TMI), a selection index applying relative economic weights (REWs) suitable for organic production systems is provided for Brown Swiss cattle in Germany. The aim of the study was to investigate genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE) for milk production traits and functional traits (including longevity, fertility traits, and calving traits) in a sample of the German-Austrian Brown Swiss population housed in Baden-Wuerttemberg (southern Germany) by applying bivariate and random regression sire models. For bivariate analyses, the production environment was binary classified by farm management system (organic and conventional) and altitude of farm location (above or below 800 m above sea level (ASL)). Milk energy yields (MEY) obtained from herd effects were used as continuously scaled environmental descriptor in the reaction norm approach. The TMIs for sires were calculated based on breeding values estimated with different models and environment-specific REWs to determine possible GxE at TMI levels and rerankings of sires. In bivariate analyses, genetic correlations at the trait level were high and ranged from r = 0.99 (calving to first insemination, cystic ovaries, and maternal stillbirth rate) to r = 0.79 (first insemination to conception for altitude). Except for the latter, no severe GxE were found at the trait level using the bivariate models. Fat yield was the only trait showing minor GxE in the reaction norm model approach. Investigating the environmental sensitivity at the TMI level revealed rank correlations between the different environment-specific TMIs that were close to unity, implying no severe reranking effects. The results show no need to account for different environments in Brown Swiss cattle breeding programs.