There is still lack of data on deep vein thrombosis (DVT) following bone trauma. This study aimed to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower extremities following tibial plateau fractures.
Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on patients presenting with tibial plateau fractures between October 2014 and December 2018 was conducted. Duplex ultrasonography (DUS) was routinely used to screen for preoperative DVT of bilateral lower extremities. Data on demographics, comorbidities, injury-related data, and laboratory biomarkers at admission were collected. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the independent risk factors associated with DVT.
A total of 1179 patients were included, among whom 192 (16.3%) had a preoperative DVT, with incidence rate of 1.0% for proximal and 15.3% for distal DVT. The average interval between fracture occurrence and diagnosis of DVT was 3.5 days (median, 2 days), ranging from 0 to 19 days. DVT involved the injured extremity in 166 (86.4%) patients, both the injured and uninjured extremities in 14 patients (7.3%) and only the uninjured extremity in 12 patients (6.3%). Six risk factors were identified to be associated with DVT, including gender (male vs female), hypertension, open fracture, alkaline phosphatase > 100 u/L, sodium concentration  0.5 mg/L.
These epidemiologic data are conducive to the individualized assessment, risk stratification, and development of targeted prevention programs.