Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has become a standard adjunct for the management of life-threatening truncal hemorrhage, but the technique is limited by the sequalae of ischemia distal to occlusion. Partial REBOA addresses this limitation, and the recent Food and Drug Administration approval of a device designed to enable partial REBOA will broaden its application. We conducted a systematic review of the available animal and clinical literature on the methods, impacts, and outcomes associated with partial REBOA as a technique to enable targeted proximal perfusion and limit distal ischemic injury. We hypothesize that a systematic review of the published animal and human literature on partial REBOA will provide actionable insight for the use of partial REBOA in the context of future wider clinical implementation of this technique.
Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols guidelines, we conducted a search of the available literature which used partial inflation of a REBOA balloon catheter. Findings from 22 large animal studies and 14 clinical studies met inclusion criteria.
Animal and clinical results support the benefits of partial REBOA including extending the resuscitative window extended safe occlusion time, improved survival, reduced proximal hypertension, and reduced resuscitation requirements. Clinical studies provide practical physiologic targets for partial REBOA including a period of total occlusion followed by gradual balloon deflation to achieve a target proximal pressure and/or target distal pressure.
Partial REBOA has several benefits which have been observed in animal and clinical studies, most notably reduced ischemic insult to tissues distal to occlusion and improved outcomes compared with total occlusion. Practical clinical protocols are available for the implementation of partial REBOA in cases of life-threatening torso hemorrhage.