: Dry eye (DE) disease is a multifactorial disease in which uncontrolled inflammation can lead to corneal epithelium lesions and symptoms of discomfort. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two cyclosporine emulsions in a mouse model of DE with corneal epithelium lesions. : Six- to 9-week-old female C57BL/6 N mice were housed in a controlled-environment room to induce DE. Following DE development, mice were instilled with: QD 0.1%CsA cationic emulsion (CaEm), BID 0.05%CsA anionic emulsion (AEm), or left untreated. Aqueous tear production and corneal epithelium lesions were assessed throughout the experiment. At the end of the treatment period, left eyes were sampled, fixed, and stained for histology, while the cornea, conjunctiva, and lacrimal gland of right eyes were sampled for transcriptomic analysis. : Corneal lesion scores were reduced by 10.4%, 18.4%, and 10.9% at day 6, 10, and 14, respectively, with CaEm (QD), and by 2.6%, 3.0%, and 5.5% at day 6, 10, and 14, respectively, with AEm (BID). Histology demonstrated that 7 out of 10 DE mice presented moderate to severe ocular lesions, while only 2 and 5 out of 10 mice presented slight to moderate ocular lesions when treated with the CaEm (QD) and AEm (BID), respectively. The transcriptomic profile analysis suggests that a different set of inflammatory genes are modulated in the cornea, conjunctiva, and lacrimal gland upon DE development. In addition, the two emulsions distinctively modulate the gene expression profile. : This study demonstrates that both emulsions were effective at reducing corneal lesions, with the CaEm (QD) being slightly better than the AEm (BID). Interestingly, this study suggests that ocular tissues may not respond similarly to a dry environment and that a different set of genes is modulated by the two formulations in the ocular tissues.
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