Hydatid cyst fluid (HCF)-based therapeutics has experimentally targeted approaches for treating human cancer cell lines. MicroRNA-365 (miR-365) has been reported to be an important tumor suppressor miRNA in cancers. However, it remains unknown, how miR-365 plays a pivotal role in inducing apoptosis in HCF-treated cancer cells in vitro. The fertile/infertile HCF was aspirated from liver of infected sheep and in terms of molecular taxonomy was identified as G1 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. A375 human melanoma cancer cells were cultured into two groups: fertile and infertile HCF-treated A375 cells. To assess the cytotoxicity of various concentrations of HCF on melanoma cells, cell viability was determined by using MTT assay. The IC50 value of HCF on A375 cells was determined 85 μg/mL. Caspase-3 enzymatic activity was evaluated by fluorometric assay in the HCF-treated melanoma cells. In addition, the mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-9 and miR-365 were determined by qRT-PCR. Findings of MTT assay showed that concentrations 85 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL of fertile HCF have the highest mortality (50%-52%) on A375 cells during 24 h. The fold change of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Caspase-9, miR-365 and Caspase-3 activity was higher in the fertile HCF-treated melanoma cells compared to infertile fluid treated A375 cells and human normal epithelial cell (as control cell). In conclusion, we over-expressed the miR-365 in melanoma A375 cells, via treatment of fertile HCF. Our findings suggested that inducing high expression of miR-365 might be a negative regulator of melanoma growth through activation of pro-apoptotic Bax, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 that are essential to intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These findings provide new insights into the use of Echinococcus HCF-derived metabolites in the design of drug therapies and in vivo tumor cell vaccine to combat melanoma progression.
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