Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) comprise a significant socio-medical problem for Russia. The article presents an analysis aimed at identifying the prerequisites for further research on the socio-economic consequences of retinal pathology. Studying the epidemiological aspects of DR and AMD, as well as the conditions for receiving medical aid helped define the main approaches to assessing the economic burden of retinal diseases in Russia. It also revealed the problems associated with completeness of registration and accounting of patients, the disparity between the volume of medical aid required and funding, and between the required and provided assistance for patients with these pathologies in clinical practice. Analysis of the disease cost will allow not only to determine the socio-economic consequences of retinal diseases, but also to find further directions for improving the quality of medical care for patients with DR and AMD in order to reduce its economic cost for the state and society. Evidently, there is a need for comprehensive assessment of the total burden of retinal diseases in Russia that would serve as a basis for subsequent assessment of the economic effectiveness of prevention and treatment measures.