It has been reported that necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is a specific necroptosis inhibitor that could attenuate programmed cell death induced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study aimed to observe the effect and mechanism of novel Nec-1 analog (Z)-5-(3,5-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-imine-1-methylimidazolin-4-1 (DIMO) on myocardial I/R injury.
Male SD rats underwent I/R injury with or without different doses of DIMO (1, 2, or 4 mg/kg) treatment. Isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) treatment with or without DIMO (0.1, 1, 10, or 100 μM). Myocardial infarction was measured by TTC staining. Cardiomyocyte injury was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase assay (LDH) and flow cytometry. Receptor-interacting protein 1 kinase (RIP1K) and autophagic markers were detected by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis. Molecular docking of DIMO into the ATP binding site of RIP1K was performed using GLIDE.
DIMO at doses of 1 or 2 mg/kg improved myocardial infarct size. However, the DIMO 4 mg/kg dose was ineffective. DIMO at the dose of 0.1 μM decreased LDH leakage and the ratio of PI-positive cells followed by OGD/R treatment. I/R or OGD/R increased RIP1K expression and in its interaction with RIP3K, as well as impaired myocardial autophagic flux evidenced by an increase in LC3-II/I ratio, upregulated P62 and Beclin-1, and activated cathepsin B and L. In contrast, DIMO treatment reduced myocardial cell death and reversed the above mentioned changes in RIP1K and autophagic flux caused by I/R and OGD/R. DIMO binds to RIP1K and inhibits RIP1K expression in a homology modeling and ligand docking.
DIMO exerts cardioprotection against I/R- or OGD/R-induced injury, and its mechanisms may be associated with the reduction in RIP1K activation and restoration impaired autophagic flux.