The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of microwave ablation (MWA) and Radioactive iodine (RAI) in the treatment of toxic adenoma (TA), and investigate functional treatment success of the used modalities for their remission.
Treatment outcomes as thyroid hormone levels and nodule characteristics of 30 patients (23:7 F:M; 52.77 ± 11.13 years) treated by MWA were compared with the those of 35 patients (24:11 F:M; 61.43 ± 12.60 years) treated by RAI. The baseline characteristics of TAs, which are gender and pre volume, were analogous and did not show any statistically significances (P >0.05). Thyroid hormone levels of patients treated with two different methods were measured after nine months, and the obtained results were compared.
Although there was no statistically significant difference at the nodule volume (P >0.05), there was a greater volume reduction rate (VRR%) in the group treated with MWA rather than RAI (P <0.05) at the end of the follow up. In MWA group, there was a higher increase in FT3 than in RAI group (P <0.05). Furthermore, there could not be observed any statistically significant difference in TSH (P = 0.124) and FT4 (P = 0.144) levels of the patients as treatment outcomes. The therapeutic success of MWA group was accomplished in 18/30 (60%) while those of RAI group in 24/35 (68.6%).
Therapeutic success of MWA and RAI was not displayed statistically significant difference (P = 0.471). However, the development of hypothyroidism in 7 of 35 patients treated with RAI was observed. On the other hand, no case of post-treatment hypothyroidism was observed in patients treated with MWA. In this regard, MWA could be a great alternative of the RAI due to its advantages in terms of non-exposure of radiation and lower risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism.