The hypomethylating agents (HMA) decitabine and azacitidine are used in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for induction therapy in select patients. They are given on either inpatient (IP) or outpatient (OP) services and the decision where to administer them is complex but ultimately depends on the risk for neutropenic infections, hyperleukocytosis and other complications. In our study, we investigated 100-day survival differences between IP and OP HMA induction. This study reviewed 68 patients, 29 of whom received HMA as an IP while 39 received it as an OP. Using a logistic regression model, we found that IP induction was associated with a significantly lower odds of survival at 100-days (Odds Ratio 5.90; p=0.005). Given these results, we hypothesize the survival difference was related to the inherent risk associated with being admitted for chemotherapy, whether it be neutropenic fever, hyperleukocytosis or other reasons. We advise physicians who are administering IP HMA to consider its’ inherent risk associated with its’ administration.

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PubMed