Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common conditions presenting to eye care providers and is increasingly recognized to have poor outcomes on quality of life, activities of daily living, and social and emotional well-being. Here, we aim to understand the association between dry eye symptoms and workplace productivity experienced by patients with non-Sjögren’s dry eye and Sjögren’s Syndrome.
MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Healthstar, and PsycINFO were searched from inception to May 2019.
Thirty-one studies consisting of 50,446 study participants from 14 countries were included in this systematic review. Among non-Sjögren’s dry eye patients, there was significant absenteeism (ES = 0.19; 95% CI: [0.04, 0.35]), presenteeism (ES = 0.25; 95% CI: [0.15. 0.35]), productivity impairment (ES = 0.24; 95% CI: [0.20, 0.27]), activity impairment (ES = 0.30; 95% CI: [0.21, 0.38]), and subjective difficulties at work (ES = 0.58; 95% CI: [0.40, 0.75]). Patients with Sjögren’s Syndrome demonstrated significant absenteeism (ES = 0.13, 95% CI: [0.10, 0.17]), presenteeism (ES = 0.28, 95% CI: [0.24, 0.32]), productivity impairment (ES = 0.31, 95% CI: [0.27, 0.35]), and activity impairment (ES = 0.39, 95% CI: [0.32, 0.47]) in the workplace. In addition, patients with Sjögren’s Syndrome demonstrated significantly lower employment rate (ES = 0.42, 95% CI: [0.34, 0.50]), decreased number of hours worked (SMD = -0.21, 95% CI: [-0.39, -0.02]), and increased work disability (ES = 0.18; 95% CI: [0.09, 0.27]).
This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to demonstrate the negative association between DED and several work productivity measures.