Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of cellular senescence in mammalian cells. The excess amount of reactive oxygen species generated by oxygen metabolism is pathogenic and facilitates tissue aging. Lung tissue is more susceptible to oxidative stress than other organs because it is directly exposed to environmental stresses. The aging of lung tissues increases the risk of chronic diseases. Senescent cells accumulate in tissues during aging and contribute to aging-associated morbidity; however, the roles of cellular senescence in lung aging and diseases have not yet been elucidated in detail. To clarify the physiological role of oxidative stress-induced cellular senescence in aging-associated declines in pulmonary function, we herein investigated the effects of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on lung cellular senescence and aging in mice. The administration of NAC to 1-year-old mice reduced the expression of senescence-associated genes in lung tissue. Pulmonary function and lung morphology were partly restored in mice administered NAC. Collectively, these results suggest that oxidative stress is a major inducer of cellular senescence in vivo and that the control of oxidative stress may prevent lung aging and diseases.