The aim of this study was to estimate and compare the differences in ocular biometric measurements (OBMs), central macular thickness (CMT), and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) between children with refractive errors and those with emmetropia.
A cross-sectional observational study of 205 children (334 eyes) aged between six and 18 years consisting of four groups (emmetropia, hypermetropia, myopia, and astigmatism) was carried out. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), a detailed ocular examination, OBMs, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) for RNFLT and CMT in both eyes were evaluated for each child.
Mean age of 205 children was 12.4 ± 3.2 years. 55.6% (n = 114) were girls and 44.4% (n = 91) were boys. There was a significant difference between the four groups for the parameters spherical equivalent (SE), keratometer readings K1and K2, axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), vitreous chamber depth (VCD) and lens thickness (LT) (P < 0.0001). The mean central corneal thickness (CCT) was not significantly different between the four groups (P = 0.076). The mean RNFLT was thinner in the myopic group compared with the emmetropic group (P = 0.0048) There was no significant difference in the mean CMT across the four groups (P = 0.458).
The data obtained are helpful in providing the normative as well as a comparative database on OBMs, RNFLT and CMT of the pediatric population. This also facilitates evaluation of RNFLT and CMT measurements in children with amblyopia, optic neuropathies, glaucoma, macular and retinal diseases.