Esophageal carcinomas have multidirectional differentiation abilities and different histological components have been reported. Herein, we report a case of esophageal carcinoma with four different differentiations. A 64-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of an esophageal tumor detected during an esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which revealed an elevated lesion accompanied by a slightly depressed lesion in the middle of the esophagus. Examination of the biopsy specimen obtained from the elevated lesion revealed an adenocarcinoma, while that from the depressed lesion revealed a squamous cell carcinoma. Fluorodeoxyglucose-position emission tomography and enhanced computed tomography showed an esophageal carcinoma in the middle of the esophagus with no signs of metastasis. The preoperative diagnosis was adenosquamous cell carcinoma classified as T2N0M0 according to the TNM classification (seventh edition). Thoracoscopic esophagectomy was performed. Examination of the resected specimen revealed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine, basaloid, and ciliated glandular differentiation. Although they may be totipotent, an esophageal carcinoma consisting of four components is extremely rare. Moreover, ciliated glandular differentiation is rarely observed in the esophagus, except in individuals with bronchial esophageal duplication cysts and adenocarcinoma arises from a Barrett’s esophagus.
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