Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are a group of microvascular thrombohemorrhagic syndromes with low incidence and high mortality, which are characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, fever, neuropsychiatric disorders, and renal involvement. In addition, TTP has a high rate of misdiagnosis and underdiagnosis due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations.
A male patient aged 47 years was admitted to our hospital with complaints of dizziness and nausea for 2 days and soy-colored urine for 1 day. The patient had caught a cold and suffered from fever, dizziness, and nausea 2 days before admission. These symptoms were relieved by self-administration of berberine 1 day before admission. Later, the patient found that the urine was scanty and soy-colored. Physical examination on admission showed that the patient developed apathy, with occasional babbling, yellowing skin and sclera, and scattered bleeding spots on the anterior chest area. Based on auxiliary tests combined with clinical manifestations, the patient was diagnosed with TTP and administered plasma exchange, hemofiltration, hormone, and anti-platelet therapies. The patient recovered and was discharged after 3 weeks. The patient regularly took aspirin and was followed up one year later with no recurrence.
TTP is an acute severe disease with complex etiology, abrupt onset, and dangerous conditions. In this patient with TTP, an important cause of the disease may have been an acute gastrointestinal infection. The plasma examination in another hospital revealed positive results for ADAMTS13 inhibitors, providing strong evidence for the diagnosis of this case. Multiple plasma exchanges and glucocorticoids yielded favorable treatment results and were critical measures of successful treatment of TTP.