A 49-year-old male patient with compartment syndrome of the right leg caused by acute carbon monoxide poisoning was admitted on December 30, 2019. The patient had a 10-year history of chronic nephritis and began dialysis treatment due to renal failure 1 month ago. Emergency surgical decompression for compartment syndrome was performed after admission. Two weeks later, the patient was diagnosed as the novel coronavirus pneumonia caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection. Then, the patient was transferred to the isolation ward, where he was given anti-infection, anti-virus, expectorant, heat-clearing and detoxifying drugs, bedside dialysis, and nutrition support symptomatic treatment. After 2 weeks of treatment, the patient is getting better, with no fever, cough, wheezing, and other discomfort. Meanwhile, the sensory and motor functions of right lower limb recovered gradually. This case is rare, severe, and difficult to diagnose and treat. It is the first reported case of novel coronavirus pneumonia after orthopedic surgery.