Stereotactic technology enables fine navigation to small structures in the human body. While current stereotactic systems facilitate accurate targeting, they are mechanically cumbersome and limited in scope. Here, we hypothesized that a stereotactic system could be developed with a reduced footprint while maintaining broad targeting capabilities in order to improve versatility in frame placement location and surgical workflow.
We designed a stereotactic system around the center-of-arc principle, with mechanical properties that would enable a compact design and ample targeting and trajectory maneuverability. To examine the opportunity for a low-cost rapidly-deployable system we developed two fabrication variants, one using 3D-printing and the other using conventional machining. Mechanical and image-guided accuracies were tested in phantom studies with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography. We assessed the system’s surgical workflow and its ability to reliably and accurately implant electrodes in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery using human cadaveric head specimens.
We developed a small 7.7 x 5.4 cmdevice platform that rigidly mounts to curvilinear bone and supports the attachment of surgical instrumentation. Attachment of two surgical instruments, an imaging localizer and a compact targeting device, demonstrated successful MRI-guided intervention in phantom studies with a vector error of 1.79 ± 0.41 mm. Evaluation of the 3D-printed system for DBS surgery confirmed ease of device platform attachment and instrument functionality, as well as demonstrated a surgical targeting accuracy of 1.83 ± 0.15 mm. In addition, we found the surgical time to be 78.3 ± 5.4 min for bilateral electrode implantation.
We developed a light and compact stereotactic system whose accuracy is on par with those used clinically. This technology is suitable for clinical translation and its flexibility in positioning will seamlessly expand the capabilities for stereotaxy to treat a wide range of conditions, both within neurosurgery and beyond.

© 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd.