We aimed to compare the outcomes of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone for high-risk prostate cancer. This was a single-center, retrospective and observational study. Consecutive patients who underwent initial radical treatment by HDR-BT boost or EBRT alone from June 2009 to May 2016 at the Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Japan were included. A total of 96 patients underwent HDR-BT boost, and 61 underwent EBRT alone. The prescription dose of HDR-BT boost was set to 18 Gy twice a day with EBRT 39 Gy/13 fractions. The dose for EBRT alone was mostly 70 Gy/28 fractions. The high-risk group received >6 months of prior androgen deprivation therapy. Overall survival, biochemical-free survival, local control and distant metastasis-free survival rates at 5 years were analyzed. The incidence of urological and gastrointestinal late adverse events of Grade 2 and above was also summarized. In the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk calssification, HDR-BT boost had a significantly higher biochemical-free survival rate at 5 years (98.9% versus 90.7%, P = 0.04). Urethral strictures were more common in the HDR-BT boost group. We will continuously observe the progress of the study patients and determine the longer term results.
© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.