Pectus carinatum (PC) is a congenital chest wall deformity which is characterized by the protrusion of the sternum and costal cartilages. Although orthotic and exercise therapies are commonly offered by physicians for PC treatment, there is a lack of evidence on the benefits of exercises and how long the orthosis should be worn. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and feasibility of custom-made compression orthosis and exercises in the treatment of PC.
 Patients with PC aged 7 to 17 years old were randomized into three groups: compression orthosis 23 hours, compression orthosis 8 hours, and control group. All groups received exercises for 1 hour a day for 3 weeks. Additionally, compression orthosis 23 hours group wore the orthosis for 23 hours a day, while compression orthosis 8 hours group wore the orthosis for 8 hours a day. PC protrusion, pressure of correction, thorax lateral and anteroposterior parameters, external chest wall measurements, and Nuss Questionnaire were evaluated before and after the treatment. Also, adverse effects, retention, and compliance were assessed. Feasibility was evaluated by calculating the percentages of recruitment, retention, and safety.
 The compression orthosis 23 hours group showed greater improvements than the other groups. After treatment, all groups showed significant changes in protrusion, pressure of correction, and external chest wall measurements. Adverse events occurred with similar frequency across groups. Retention percentages did not differ among groups.
 Compression orthosis use for 23 hours can be recommended rather than its use for 8 hours because 23 hours of orthosis use has better correction and similar adverse effects.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.