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A four-state Markov model of sleep-wakefulness dynamics along light/dark cycle in mice.

A four-state Markov model of sleep-wakefulness dynamics along light/dark cycle in mice.
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Perez-Atencio L, Garcia-Aracil N, Fernandez E, Barrio LC, Barios JA,


Perez-Atencio L, Garcia-Aracil N, Fernandez E, Barrio LC, Barios JA, (click to view)

Perez-Atencio L, Garcia-Aracil N, Fernandez E, Barrio LC, Barios JA,

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PloS one 2018 01 0513(1) e0189931 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0189931
Abstract

Behavioral states alternate between wakefulness (wk), rapid eye movement (rem) and non-rem (nrem) sleep at time scale of hours i.e., light and dark cycle rhythms and from several tens of minutes to seconds (i.e., brief awakenings during sleep). Using statistical analysis of bout duration, Markov chains of sleep-wk dynamics and quantitative EEG analysis, we evaluated the influence of light/dark (ld) changes on brain function along the sleep-wk cycle. Bout duration (bd) histograms and Kaplan-Meier (km) survival curves of wk showed a bimodal statistical distribution, suggesting that two types of wk do exist: brief-wk (wkb) and long-wk (wkl). Light changes modulated specifically wkl bouts, increasing its duration during active/dark period. In contrast, wkb, nrem and rem bd histograms and km curves did not change significantly along ld cycle. Hippocampal eeg of both types of wk were different: in comparison wkb showed a lower spectral power in fast gamma and fast theta bands and less emg tone. After fitting a four-states Markov chain to mice hypnograms, moreover in states transition probabilities matrix was found that: in dark/active period, state-maintenance probability of wkl increased, and probability of wkl to nrem transition decreased; the opposite was found in light period, favoring the hypothesis of the participation of brief wk into nrem-rem intrinsic sleep cycle, and the role of wkl in SWS homeostasis. In conclusion, we propose an extended Markov model of sleep using four stages (wkl, nrem, rem, wkb) as a fully adequate model accounting for both modulation of sleep-wake dynamics based on the differential regulation of long-wk (high gamma/theta) epochs during dark and light phases.

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