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A mature macrophage is a principal HIV-1 cellular reservoir in humanized mice after treatment with long acting antiretroviral therapy.

A mature macrophage is a principal HIV-1 cellular reservoir in humanized mice after treatment with long acting antiretroviral therapy.
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Araínga M, Edagwa B, Mosley RL, Poluektova LY, Gorantla S, Gendelman HE,


Araínga M, Edagwa B, Mosley RL, Poluektova LY, Gorantla S, Gendelman HE, (click to view)

Araínga M, Edagwa B, Mosley RL, Poluektova LY, Gorantla S, Gendelman HE,

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Retrovirology 2017 03 0914(1) 17 doi 10.1186/s12977-017-0344-7

Abstract
BACKGROUND
Despite improved clinical outcomes seen following antiretroviral therapy (ART), resting CD4+ T cells continue to harbor latent human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1). However, such cells are not likely the solitary viral reservoir and as such defining where and how others harbor virus is imperative for eradication measures. To such ends, we used HIV-1ADA-infected NOD.Cg-Prkdc (scid) Il2rg (tm1Wjl) /SzJ mice reconstituted with a human immune system to explore two long-acting ART regimens investigating their abilities to affect viral cell infection and latency. At 6 weeks of infection animals were divided into four groups. One received long-acting (LA) cabotegravir (CAB) and rilpivirine (RVP) (2ART), a second received LA CAB, lamivudine, abacavir and RVP (4ART), a third were left untreated and a fourth served as an uninfected control. After 4 weeks of LA ART treatment, blood, spleen and bone marrow (BM) cells were collected then phenotypically characterized. CD4+ T cell subsets, macrophages and hematopoietic progenitor cells were analyzed for HIV-1 nucleic acids by droplet digital PCR.

RESULTS
Plasma viral loads were reduced by two log10 or to undetectable levels in the 2 and 4ART regimens, respectively. Numbers and distributions of CD4+ memory and regulatory T cells, macrophages and hematopoietic progenitor cells were significantly altered by HIV-1 infection and by both ART regimens. ART reduced viral DNA and RNA in all cell and tissue compartments. While memory cells were the dominant T cell reservoir, integrated HIV-1 DNA was also detected in the BM and spleen macrophages in both regimen-treated mice.

CONCLUSION
Despite vigorous ART regimens, HIV-1 DNA and RNA were easily detected in mature macrophages supporting their potential role as an infectious viral reservoir.

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