We aimed to analyze the correlation between ABCG2 gene polymorphisms of 34 GG/(GA + AA) loci, 421 CC/(AC + AA) loci, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapeutic effects via meta-analysis. With key words, the databases PubMed and EMBASE were searched for clinical studies on ABCG2 polymorphism and NSCLC. RR and 95% CIs were used to compute combined effects, followed by heterogeneity testing. Publication bias was examined using the funnel plot method. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for the meta-analysis. Ten studies were included. No evidence of heterogeneity exists in these studies. The results indicate that two polymorphic loci of ABCG2 gene (34 G>A, and 421 C>A) had no relationship with the curative effect of chemotherapy for NSCLC, except ABCG2 34G>A, which had a significant relationship with the skin toxicity complication. There was no significant relationship between these polymorphisms and complications (skin toxicity, diarrhea, interstitial pneumonia, liver dysfunction, and neutropenia). Begg’s test and Egger’s test indicated that there was no obvious publication bias. The meta-analysis indicated that there was no significant correlation between ABCG2 gene polymorphism and NSCLC outcomes.