The symbiotic relationships shared between humans and their gastrointestinal parasites presents opportunities to discover novel therapies for inflammatory diseases. A prime example of this phenomenon is the interaction of humans and roundworms such as the hookworm, Necator americanus. Epidemiological observations, animal studies and clinical trials using experimental human hookworm infection show that hookworms can suppress inflammation in a safe and well tolerated way, and that the key to their immunomodulatory properties lies within their secreted proteome. Herein we describe the identification of two netrin domain-containing proteins from the N. americanus secretome, and explore their potential in treating intestinal inflammation in mouse models of ulcerative colitis. One of these proteins, subsequently named Na-AIP-1, was effective at suppressing disease when administered prophylactically in the acute TNBS-induced model of colitis. This protective effect was validated in the more robust CD4 T cell transfer model of chronic colitis, where prophylactic Na-AIP-1 reduced T-cell-dependent type-1 cytokine responses in the intestine and the associated intestinal pathology. Mechanistic studies revealed that depletion of CD11c+ cells abrogated the protective anti-colitic effect of Na-AIP-1. Next generation sequencing of colon tissue in the T-cell transfer model of colitis revealed that Na-AIP-1 induced a transcriptomic profile associated with the downregulation of metabolic and signalling pathways involved in type-1 inflammation, notably TNF. Finally, co-culture of Na-AIP-1 with a human monocyte-derived M1 macrophage cell line resulted in significantly reduced secretion of TNF. Na-AIP-1 is now a candidate for clinical development as a novel therapeutic for the treatment of human inflammatory bowel diseases.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.