A concerted action on the part of international agencies and national governments has resulted in the near-eradication of poliomyelitis. However, both the oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) have deficiencies which make them suboptimal for use after global eradication. OPV is composed of attenuated Sabin strains and stimulates robust immunity, but may revert to neurovirulent forms in the intestine which can be shed and infect susceptible contacts. The majority of IPV products are manufactured using pathogenic strains inactivated with formalin. Upon eradication, the production of large quantities of pathogenic virus will present an increased biosecurity hazard. A logical ideal endgame vaccine would be an inactivated form of an attenuated strain that could afford protective immunity while safely producing larger numbers of doses per unit of virus stock than current vaccines. We report here the development of an ionizing radiation (IR)-inactivated Sabin-based vaccine using a reconstituted Mn-decapeptide (MDP) antioxidant complex derived from the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. In bacteria, Mn2+-peptide antioxidants protect proteins from oxidative damage caused by extreme radiation exposure. Here we show for the first time, that MDP can protect immunogenic neutralizing epitopes in picornaviruses. MDP protects epitopes in Polio Virus 1 and 2 Sabin strains (PV1-S and PV2-S, respectively), but viral genomic RNA is not protected during supralethal irradiation. IR-inactivated Sabin viruses stimulated equivalent or improved neutralizing antibody responses in Wistar rats compared to the commercially used IPV products. Our approach reduces the biosecurity risk of the current PV vaccine production method by utilizing the Sabin strains instead of the wild type neurovirulent strains. Additionally, the IR-inactivation approach could provide a simpler, faster and less costly process for producing a more immunogenic IPV. Gamma-irradiation is a well-known method of virus inactivation and this vaccine approach could be adapted to any pathogen of interest.
July 2, 2020
Associations between cognitive impairment and P300 mean amplitudes in individuals with bipolar disorder in remission.
June 8, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- ENDO: 2020ENDO 2020 Annual Conference has been canceled due to COVID-19. Here are highlights of emerging data that has still been released. Keep an eye out for ENDO Online 2020, which will take place from June 8 to 22.
- CROI 2020Every year, CROI hosts some of the world's leading experts in HIV research, who come to present exciting new data and drive forward the field of HIV/AIDS research. This year, due to COVID-19, CROI held their meeting virtually.