Diagnostic pathology 2017 11 1512(1) 82 doi 10.1186/s13000-017-0669-5
KIAA1549-BRAF fusion is the most common genetic event in pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), and leads to activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Fusions of BRAF with other partner genes, as well as other genetic alterations not involving BRAF but also leading to MAPK pathway activation have been described rarely.
We present a new fusion partner in the low-grade glioma of a 10-year-old male, who presented with headaches and recent episodes of seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a right temporal lobe tumor. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation, and a next generation sequencing assay (Oncopanel, Illumina, 500 genes) including breaKmer analysis for chromosomal rearrangements were performed. Histology was remarkable for a low-grade glioma composed of mildly atypical astrocytes with piloid processes, in a focally microcystic background. Mitoses were not seen; unequivocal Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies were absent. The tumor was positive for OLIG2 and GFAP and negative for BRAF V600E and IDH1 R132H mutant protein immunostains. Oncopanel showed low SOX2 (3q26.33) copy number gain, and no gains at 7q34. There were no significant single nucleotide variants. BreaKmer detected a GIT2-BRAF fusion with loss of BRAF exons 1-8. The integrated diagnosis was low-grade glioma with piloid features, most consistent with pilocytic astrocytoma, WHO grade I.
GIT2-BRAF fusion has not been reported in the literature in any tumor. Given that the BRAF sequence deleted is identical to that seen in other fusion events in PA, it most likely acts as tumor driver by activation of the MAPK pathway.