Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a significant obstacle for immunotherapy of cancer. It is of great clinical relevance to study the mechanism of MDSCs accumulation in mouse spleens and establish a stable method to obtain high-purity MDSCs in vitro for further research. Here, we established a new method for amplifying a large number of highly pure MDSCs in vitro. To mimic the microenvironment of MDSCs development in vivo, mouse splenic stroma feeder cells and serum-free medium containing granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were used to induce myeloid precursors in mouse bone marrow cells, which differentiate into MDSCs. Development and immunological functions of the cells were monitored both in vivo and in vitro. A total of 4 × 10 MDSCs could be obtained from the bone marrow from one mouse, the ratio of CD11bGr-1 MDSCs could reach 93.8% ± 3.3% after nine days of culture in vitro. Cultured MDSCs maintained a similar immunophenotype with MDSCs found in tumor-bearing mice. Colony forming assay in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that these were myeloid precursor cells. These cells generated high levels of reactive oxygen species and arginase 1 to prevent proliferation of CD8 T cells in vitro. These also increased regulatory T (Treg) cells in blood while promoting the growth of lymphoma in vivo. In addition, cultured MDSCs effectively inhibited acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Our findings suggest that mouse splenic stroma plays an important role in the generation of MDSCs and represent a preliminary mechanism for the accumulation of MDSCs in spleens, and thereby lay the foundation for basic research and the clinical application of MDSCs.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.