A proprietary library of novel -aryl-substituted amino acid derivatives bearing a hydroxamate head group allowed the identification of compound that possesses weak proadipogenic and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activating properties. The systematic optimization of , in order to improve its PPARγ agonist activity, led to the synthesis of compound (-aryl-substituted valine derivative) that possesses dual PPARγ/PPARα agonistic activity. Structural and kinetic analyses reveal that occupies the typical ligand binding domain of the PPARγ agonists with, however, a unique high-affinity binding mode. Furthermore, is highly effective in preventing cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARγ serine 273. Although less proadipogenic than rosiglitazone, significantly increases adipocyte insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and efficiently promotes white-to-brown adipocyte conversion. In addition, prevents oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in hepatoma cells. The unique biochemical properties and biological activities of compound suggest that it would be a promising candidate for the development of compounds to reduce insulin resistance, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

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