The delta opioid receptor (DOR) has been identified as a therapeutic target for migraine, with DOR agonists exhibiting low abuse potential compared with conventional µ-opioid agonists. TRV250 is a novel small molecule agonist of the DOR that is preferentially selective for G-protein signaling, with relatively little activation of the β-arrestin2 post-receptor signaling pathway. This selectivity provides reduced susceptibility to proconvulsant activity seen with non-selective DOR agonists. TRV250 significantly reduced nitroglycerin-evoked hyperalgesia in rodents, indicating a potential utility in acute migraine without the risk of seizure activity or abuse potential.
This trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ascending dose levels of TRV250 administered subcutaneously (SC) and the relative bioavailability of TRV250 administered orally compared with SC administration.
This was a two-part, single ascending dose study. Part A included four cohorts of healthy adults (N = 38). Each cohort was dosed on three occasions (placebo and two different dose levels of TRV250, allocated in randomized order and administered by SC route). In Part B, a single cohort of nine subjects received an oral dose of either TRV250 (n = 7) or placebo (n = 2) in a fed or fasted state. Serial blood samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic determination across a 24-h post-dose period. Safety assessments included clinical laboratory measures, vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), and electroencephalogram (EEG) pre- and post-dosing.
TRV250 was well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events (SAEs), and all AEs were mild in severity. Injection-site reactions and headache were the most common AEs. One subject was withdrawn from the study due to a TRV250-related AE of postural orthostatic tachycardia. There were no clinically relevant changes in physical examination, hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, suicidal ideation, or vital signs, with the exception of orthostatic changes in some subjects. No subject experienced abnormalities in EEGs or experienced a change from baseline in heart-rate-corrected QT interval (QTcF) > 60 ms, or an absolute QTcF interval > 480 ms at any post-dosing observation. Peak and total plasma exposure to TRV250 increased in a dose-proportional manner following 0.1-30 mg SC doses, with the mean half-life ranging from 2.39 to 3.76 h. Oral bioavailability of TRV250 ranged from 14% (fasting) to 19% (fed) relative to SC dosing, while administration with food increased the AUC but decreased the rate of absorption as reflected by a modest delay in median time to maximum concentration and a slight reduction in maximum concentration.
The findings from the first-in-human study support further evaluation of TRV250, a G-protein selective DOR agonist, in the treatment of acute migraine.