Current guidelines recommend estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using creatinine (eGFRcr) with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation as the first test for GFR evaluation, but the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation is still commonly used in oncology practice and clinical trials despite increasing evidence of its inaccuracy compared to measured GFR (mGFR). Guidelines recommend eGFR using cystatin C (eGFRcys) or both markers (eGFRcr-cys) as a confirmatory test, but neither was carefully evaluated in cancer patients. Therefore, we compared performance of the CKD-EPI equations and others to the CG equation in adults with a variety of solid tumors. The mGFR was determined by plasma clearance of Cr-EDTA. Bias was defined as the median of the differences between mGFR and eGFR while accuracy was defined as the percentage of estimates that differed by more than 30% from the measured GFR (1-P30). We prospectively recruited 1,200 patients between April 2015 and September 2017 with a mean age and mGFR of 58.8 years and 78.4 ml/min/1.73m, respectively. Bias among eGFRcr equations varied from -8.1 to +6.1 ml/min/1.73 m. CG was the least accurate, 1-P30 (95% confidence interval) was 24.9 (22.4- 27.3)%; CKD-EPI had 1-P30 of 19.1 (16.8-21.2)% while eGFRcr-cys had the best performance: bias -2.0 (-2.6 to -1.1) ml/min/1.73m and 1-P30 7.8 (6.3-9.4)%. Thus, the CG equation should not be preferred over CKD-EPI equation, and eGFRcr-cys can be used as a confirmatory test in adults with solid tumors. Hence, a major policy implication would be to adopt general practice guideline-recommended methods for GFR evaluation in oncology practice and clinical trials.
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