Acute gastric variceal hemorrhage (AGVH) is a serious complication of portal hypertension. Endoscopic cyanoacrylate glue injection is standard therapy for acute hemostasis; however, it may be associated with serious complications. The role of thrombin injection has not been confirmed. This study compared endoscopic thrombin and glue injections in the hemostasis of AGVH.
 68 eligible patients with AGVH were randomized to receive thrombin injection (33 patients) or glue injection (35 patients). The primary end point was injection-induced gastric ulcers. Secondary end points were acute hemostasis, rebleeding, and mortality within 42 days.
 Both groups had comparable baseline data. Hemostasis of active bleeding at endoscopy was 90.0 % (9/10) in the thrombin group and 90.9 % (10/11) in the glue group ( = 0.58), and 48-hour hemostasis was achieved in 93.9 % (31/33) and 97.1 % (34/35), respectively ( = 0.60). Treatment failure at 5 days occurred in two patients (6.1 %) in the thrombin group and two patients (5.7 %) in the glue group ( > 0.99). Gastric ulcers occurred in none of the thrombin group and 11/30 (36.7 %) of the glue group ( < 0.001, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 8 % - 27 %). Complications occurred in 4 (12.1 %) and 18 (51.4 %) patients in the thrombin and glue groups, respectively ( < 0.001, 95 %CI 22 % - 45 %). Two patients who received glue had post-treatment gastric ulcer bleeding. One patient in each group died.
 Endoscopic thrombin injection was similar to glue injection in achieving successful hemostasis of AGVH. However, a higher incidence of complications may be associated with glue injection.

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.