The risk of invasive pneumococcal disease is significant among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The optimal pneumococcal vaccination strategy for SOT patients is not known.
The potential kidney transplant recipients in dialysis were randomised into two arms: to receive a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) before transplantation or to receive a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) before transplantation and a second dose of PCV13 six months after the transplantation. Serotype-specific antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured before and after the first vaccination (visits V1,V2) and six and seven months after the transplantation, e.g. before and after the second PCV13 (visits V3,V4).
Out of 133 participants, 48 (PCV13 arm) and 46 (PPV23 arm) received a kidney transplant, and 37 + 37 in both arms completed the study. After the first vaccination , the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) in the PCV13 arm were significantly higher for 9/13 serotypes and the OPA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly higher for 4/13 serotypes. At V3, the antibody levels had declined but OPA remained significantly higher for 7/13 (PCV13) vs 4/13 (PPV23) serotypes. At V4, the GMCs for 9/13 serotypes and the GMTs for 12/13 serotypes were significantly higher in the PCV13 arm. The GMCs but not GMTs were lower than at V2. There was no difference in adverse effects. No vaccine-related allograft rejection was detected.
The immunogenicity of PCV13 was better in dialysis patients, and revaccination with PCV13 was immunogenic and safe .

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