Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a relatively common complication affecting short- and long-term survival. The renoprotective effect of vitamin D (VitD) has been confirmed in several experimental models. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of high-dose VitD administration in patients with VitD insufficiency on the incidence of postoperative AKI, the urinary level of tubular biomarkers, and serum anti-inflammatory biomarker after coronary artery bypass graft.
In this randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, the patients were randomly allocated to either the VitD group (n = 50), receiving 150,000 IU VitD tablets daily for 3 consecutive days before surgery or the control group (n = 61), receiving placebo tablets.
There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative AKI between the groups. Both of the urinary levels of interleukin-18 and kidney injury molecule-1 were significantly increased after the operation (p < 0.001, for both). Also, the serum level of interleukin-10 was increased after 3 days of VitD supplementation (p = 0.001). In comparison with the control group, it remained on a higher level after the operation (p < 0.001) and the next day (p = 0.03). The patients with AKI had more postoperative bleeding and received more blood transfusion.
VitD pretreatment was unable to impose any changes in the incidence of AKI and the urinary level of renal biomarkers. However, high-dose administration of VitD may improve the anti-inflammatory state before and after the operation. Further studies are needed to assess the renoprotective effect of VitD on coronary surgery patients.