BACKGROUND Recent reports have shown an increased incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This report is of a case of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) with a good outcome in a 58-year-old Nigerian HIV-positive man who was being treated with ART. CASE REPORT A 58-year-old HIV-positive man presented to a clinic for evaluation of a left axillary mass. He was diagnosed with HIV in 2005, which was well-controlled by ART. He reported intermittent swelling in the left axillary region for several years. Results of a physical examination were significant for mild tender left anterior axillary lymphadenopathy. He had a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest and neck, which showed left axillary adenopathy, with the largest measuring 3.5×2.0 cm. A staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) showed focal uptake in 2 left axillary lymph nodes with no other sites involved. He underwent excision of the left axillary lymph node. Histopathology was consistent with nodular lymphocyte-predominant-type Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NLHPL). He underwent radiation therapy with a total dose of 3600 centigray (cGy) according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. The 5-month follow-up PET/CT scan showed no evidence of malignancy. CONCLUSIONS We present a case of HIV-associated NLHPL that had an indolent course and a good treatment outcome. This case highlights the importance of regular physical examination in HIV patients while on treatment with ART and accurate diagnosis of the cause of lymphadenopathy to prevent extra-nodal spread in cases of lymphoma.
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