Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochetal disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. The clinical presentation ranges from an asymptomatic state to a fatal multiorgan dysfunction. Neurological manifestations including aseptic meningitis, spinal cord and peripheral nerve involvement, cranial neuropathies and cerebellar syndrome are well recognized with varying frequencies among patients with this disease. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a very rare occurrence in leptospirosis and only two cases are reported in the medical literature up to now. We report a case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a patient with leptospirosis with rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury.
A 21 year-old male presented with fever and oliguric acute kidney injury with rhabdomyolysis. A diagnosis of leptospirosis was made and he was being managed according to the standard practice together with regular hemodialysis. The clinical condition was improving gradually. On day 8 of the illness, he developed headache and sudden painless complete bilateral vision loss followed by several brief generalized tonic clonic seizure attacks. Examination was significant for a Glasgow Coma Scale of 14/15, blood pressure of 150/90 mmHg and complete bilateral blindness. The findings of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were compatible with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. He was managed with blood pressure control and antiepileptics with supportive measures and standard treatment for leptospirosis and made a complete recovery.
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, though very rare with leptospirosis, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in a patient with new onset visual symptoms and seizures, especially during the immune phase. Optimal supportive care together with careful blood pressure control and seizure management would yield a favourable outcome in this reversible entity.