Currently, endoscopic resection of early colorectal cancer defined as carcinoma with limited invasion of the mucosa (Tis) and submucosa (T1) is possible. However, lymph node spreading increases to 16.2% of cases when tumor invades the submucosa. We analyzed the previously identified factors for lymph node dissemination and recurrence, in our population.
We analyzed retrospectively all patients with T1 tumors, treated at our center with endoscopic resection and some with additional surgery between January 2006 and January 2018. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 25.0.
One hundred fifty-nine patients were treated with endoscopic resection, 56.6% with additional surgery. The mean age was 68.74 years and 69. 9% were male. All patients who underwent additional surgery presented negative margins and 8.8% presented positive lymph nodes. In a mean follow-up of 23.36 months, 13 patients had relapsed. The risk of relapse did not differ between patients treated with additional surgery from those who only underwent endoscopic resection (p = 0.506). On the other hand, lymph node dissemination (p = 0.007) and a positive endoscopic margin (p = 0.01) were independent risk factors for relapse. There was a positive association between lymph node dissemination and lymphatic (p = 0.07), vascular (p = 0.007), and perineural (p = 0.001) invasion and also with degree of histological differentiation (p = 0.001).
In our study, lymphatic, vascular, and perineural invasion and also the degree of histological differentiation were associated with lymph node dissemination. However, the only independent risk factors for long-term recurrence were a positive margin and lymph node dissemination.