Early-onset neonatal Group B streptococcus (GBS) illness is a prevalent cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in the first week of life. This infection is transmitted vertically from GBS-positive moms to neonates during delivery, and it causes significant sickness in newborns. Thanks to intrapartum prophylactic antibiotics, early-onset neonatal GBS illness has been reduced by 80%. Patients with a penicillin allergy (PcnA) are given either vancomycin or clindamycin, albeit their efficiency is debatable. The impact of a reported PcnA label versus no PcnA label on inpatient maternal and neonatal outcomes was investigated by Researchers. A study determined the link between a PcnA label, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and hospital costs. From 2016 to 2018, we collected retrospective data from hospitalized patients who were GBS positive, pregnant at the time of admission, under the age of 18, had antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS, were designated as PcnA or non-PcnA, and delivered vaginally. Researchers studied the features of the patients and the maternal and neonatal outcomes. Calculations of means, medians, and proportions, Mann–Whitney, two-sample t-tests, Chi-squared or Fisher’s Exact tests, and generalized linear and logistic regression models were among the statistical tests used. Researchers chose the significance level at P<0.05.

PcnA patients were more likely to be Caucasian, older, have a higher median BMI and mean heart rate, and use cigarettes than non-PcnA patients. In regression studies, PcnA hospitalized patients received less antibiotic treatment for a shorter period than non-PcnA hospitalized patients [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38–0.53]. Although PcnA mothers’ LOS was not different from non-PcnA mothers’, PcnA patients were more likely to have their baby’s hospital LOS be > 48 h [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07–1.69]. The groups had similar care costs, mortality, intensive care, median parity, mean gravidity, and miscarriage. A PcnA label was linked to a shorter maternal antibiotic course and a longer neonatal LOS in hospitalized obstetric patients. More prospective research is needed to figure out what’s causing these results.