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A review of renal disease in children with HIV infection.

A review of renal disease in children with HIV infection.
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Jindal AK, Tiewsoh K, Pilania RK,


Jindal AK, Tiewsoh K, Pilania RK, (click to view)

Jindal AK, Tiewsoh K, Pilania RK,

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Infectious diseases (London, England) 2017 09 08() 1-12 doi 10.1080/23744235.2017.1371852

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. HIV-infected individuals are now surviving for a relatively longer period and this is because of easy accessibility to antiretroviral therapy these days. As a result, chronic disease-related complications are now being recognized more often. Kidney disease in HIV-infected children can vary from glomerular to tubular-interstitial involvement. We searched the database to identify various kidney diseases seen in HIV-infected children. We describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathology, clinical and laboratory manifestations, management and outcome of commonly seen kidney disease in HIV-infected children. We also provide a brief overview of toxicity of antiretroviral drugs seen in HIV-infected children. Kidney involvement in HIV-infected children may arise because of HIV infection per se, opportunistic infections, immune mediated injury and drug toxicity. HIV-associated nephropathy is perhaps the most common and most severe form of kidney disease. Proteinuria may be a cost-effective screening test in the long-term management of HIV-infected children, however, there are no definite recommendations for the same. Other important renal diseases are HIV immune complex kidney disease, thrombotic microangiopathy, interstitial nephritis and vasculitis.

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