Radiation exposure (RE) during endourological operations for stone disease puts urologists at risk. Many of the strategies discussed resulted in a reduction in RE. For this study, researchers wanted to go through available guidelines for reducing RE during such operations and give tips and techniques for implementing them. As an attempt to reduce RE during surgery, many low-radiation and radiation-free procedures for percutaneous nephrolithotomy and flexible ureteroscopy have been established. Flourless treatments, which begin with particular checklists to assure proper C-arm utilization, were based on endoscopic evaluation, tactile guiding, and the use of ultrasonography to eliminate fluoroscopy. A precise preoperative checklist, as well as low radiation or flourless radiation endourological techniques, had been proved successful, practicable, and safe. Urologists should be aware of the hazards of RE and follow the “ALARA” (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) procedures.
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