This review describes the current scenario of a priority group of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) listed by World Health Organization (WHO), and their main determinants and drivers for the emergence/spread of the diseases. The gaps and strategies developed by India to meet the WHO guidelines on the effective control of epidemic-prone diseases and outbreaks are also presented in the review. Epidemiologic information of EIDs, namely Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), Ebola and Marburg viruses (EboV and MarV), Zika virus (ZIKAV), Rift Valley fever (RVF), Middle East respiratory syndrome, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Nipah and Hendra virus (NiV and HeV), and Lassa fever virus (LASV), was drawn from international and national electronic databases to assess the situation. A brief view on the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India is also included. There are no reports for human infection of EboV, MarV, RVF, and LASV in India. CCHF, SARS, ZIKAV, and NiV have been involved in outbreaks in eight states of India, while COVID-19 is currently reported from majority of states. India has deeply strengthened its surveillance and response system of outbreaks and epidemic-prone diseases. Despite its enormous improvements made in the anticipation of such threats, still more efforts are needed in sensitization of populations as well as hospital management in the context to EIDs, as addressed in the review. Furthermore, there is still a need for more research and development activities to efficiently control EIDs.