Although the number of complex percutaneous coronary intervention (CPCI) procedures is increasing, data regarding sex-related outcomes following CPCI are scarce.
We retrospectively analyzed data of patients enrolled in a single-center registry between 2009 and 2017. Patients were divided into two groups (CPCI and non-CPCI) stratified by sex. CPCI was defined as any PCI procedure with ≥1 of the following characteristics: ≥3 target vessels/lesions, ≥3 stents implanted, bifurcation with ≥2 stents, stent length > 60 mm, or chronic total occlusion. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target vessel revascularization, at 1-year follow-up.
Among 20,419 patients, 5004 (24.5%) underwent CPCI of whom 25.6% (n = 1281) women and 74.4% (n = 3723) men. Women presented with more comorbidities yet less complex coronary anatomy than men (syntax score: 19.5 ± 10.3 vs. 20.6 ± 10.7, p = 0.009). Moreover, women were more likely to fulfill a single rather than multiple CPCI criteria. At one year, a higher rate of MACE occurred in women (14.0% vs. 11.6%, p = 0.02). After multivariable adjustment for confounders, the risk of MACE at one year was similar among both sexes (HR:1.04, 95% CI [0.85-1.26], p = 0.71), without significant interaction between the complexity of the procedure and sex (p-interaction = 0.96). Nonetheless, the risk of MI was significantly higher in women than men undergoing CPCI (HR:1.63, 95% CI [1.12-2.38], p = 0.01).
Despite presenting with less challenging lesions than men, women had a higher rate of MI at one year following CPCI, even after adjusting for potential confounders.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.