For a study, researchers sought to evaluate cognitive outcomes in children with intestinal failure (IF) and children at high risk of IF who had disorders affecting the small intestine that necessitate parenteral nourishment. From its commencement through October 2020, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO were scoured. Original data on developmental quotients (DQ), intelligence quotients (IQ), and/or rates of severe developmental delay/disability (SDD) measured with standardized testing were included in the studies. To gather data and evaluate research quality, they employed relevant standardized procedures. They used random-effects meta-analyses to calculate pooled DQ/IQ and SDD rates (general population means for DQ/IQ: 100, percentage with SDD: 1.8%) for 4 groups: IF, surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), abdominal wall defects (AWD), and midgut abnormalities (MM). 

The criteria for inclusion were satisfied by 30 studies. DQ/IQ pooled mean for IF, NEC, AWD, and MM were 86.8, 83.3, 96.6, and 99.5, respectively. SDD rates in IF, NEC, AWD, and MM were 28.6%, 32.8%, 8.5%, and 3.7%, respectively. Lower DQ/IQ was related to a lower gestational age, a longer hospital stay, and a larger number of operations, but not with a longer duration of parenteral feeding, according to meta-regressions. Adverse developmental outcomes are prevalent in children with IF and NEC, but far less so in children with AWD and MM. It was critical to track cognitive development in children with small intestinal disorders and to look for ways to avoid and treat them.