Objective Fabry disease (FD) is a hereditary lysosomal storage disease that has been highlighted as a possible etiology of stroke at a young age and presents with other various neurological symptoms. Since FD is rare, limited information is currently available on the prevalence of neurological symptoms in Japanese patients with FD. Therefore, we examined the characteristics of neurological symptoms and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in adult Japanese patients with FD. Methods This was a retrospective, single-center study. We reviewed neurological symptoms and brain MRI findings in the medical records of 12 adult Japanese patients with FD diagnosed by a gene analysis of the α-galactosidase gene. Results Ten out of 12 patients with FD presented with the following neurological symptoms: acroparesthesia (n=6), headache (n=5) (migraine [n=4]), hypohidrosis (n=5), and cerebral infarction (n=3). Two and three of the patients with migraine were complicated by ischemic stroke and coronary spastic angina, respectively. Five and 10 patients presented with periventricular hyperintensity and deep white matter hyperintensity, respectively, on brain MRI. Two out of eight patients had cerebral microbleeds. Seven out of 11 patients had a dilated basilar artery diameter on magnetic resonance angiography. There were no patients with the pulvinar hyperintensity sign. Conclusion Patients with FD present with various neurological symptoms. Headache, particularly migraine, might be a major neurological symptom in patients with FD. Since migraine, ischemic stroke, and coronary spastic angina might occur together in FD, caution is needed when administering triptan to FD patients with migraine.