Defective cholesterol efflux pathways in mice promote the expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and a bias toward the myeloid lineage, as observed in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Here, we identify 5 somatic missense mutations in ABCA1 in 26 patients with CMML. These mutations confer a proliferative advantage to monocytic leukemia cell lines in vitro. In vivo inactivation of ABCA1 or expression of ABCA1 mutants in hematopoietic cells in the setting of Tet2 loss demonstrates a myelosuppressive function of ABCA1. Mechanistically, ABCA1 mutations impair the tumor-suppressor functions of WT ABCA1 in myeloproliferative neoplasms by increasing the IL-3Rβ signaling via MAPK and JAK2 and subsequent metabolic reprogramming. Overexpression of a human apolipoprotein A-1 transgene dampens myeloproliferation. These findings identify somatic mutations in ABCA1 that subvert its anti-proliferative and cholesterol efflux functions and permit the progression of myeloid neoplasms. Therapeutic increases in HDL bypass these defects and restore normal hematopoiesis.
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