The objective of the present study was to determine the acaricidal activity of arecoline hydrobromide against cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus infesting calves. in vivo efficacy of arecoline emulsified with polysorbate-80 (2%) was evaluated using ear bag method with the effective dose of 12.5 mg/mL applied on ear pinna of calves infested with ticks. Control group received polysorbate-80 (2%) after larvae infestation, however, reference group received deltamethrin (0.5 %). The experiment was continued for six days (144 h) and treatment of drug was given twice a day. Daily observation of calves was done to count the number of ticks after treatment. Acute dermal toxicity study for test drug was performed on wistar rats. Clinical safety of arecoline was determined by examining hematological profile and skin irritancy assay for calves infested with ticks. Results showed that arecoline significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the number of ticks attached to ear pinna of calves. Fewer number of ticks remained on calves skin at 120 h and 144 h were 8.09 and 6.21, respectively after treatment with arecoline in comparison to control group. Treatment of animals with arecoline hydrobromide significantly (p < 0.01) restored the hematological profile of animals as hemoglobin (Hb) level was 9.01 g/100 mL, PVC was 29.24 %, TEC and TLC were 5.23 and 7.19 106/cumm, respectively as compared to the control group having Hb 9.48 g/100 mL, PVC 31.60 %, TEC 5.64 10/cumm and TLC 7.27 10/cumm. Arecoline showed no toxicity while applied on wistar rats. The drug was mild irritative for an initial 20 min to the calves after that no redness or erythema was seen on the skin of the animals. Thus, arecoline hydrobromide may be an effective alternative to be used as herbal ectoparasiticide for the eradication of R. microplus ticks.Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Ravindra Kumar Pandey