To report a case of bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy and lipemia retinalis in a patient with acquired lipodystrophy.
A retrospective case report.
A 23-year-old woman with a diagnosis of acquired lipodystrophy was referred for ophthalmic evaluation. She had been diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia at the age of 3 years and undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes; however, funduscopy revealed bilateral diabetic retinopathy and lipemia retinalis, neither of which was apparent 2 years earlier. She had a glycated hemoglobin level of 9.6% and a triglyceride level of 7,394 mg/dL with creamy appearance of serum. Fluorescein angiography showed bilateral neovascularization.
Accelerated progression of diabetic retinopathy in the present case appeared to be associated with the onset of lipemia retinalis. We encourage continued ophthalmologic monitoring of patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood for possible accelerated course of diabetic retinopathy.

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