It is a well-established fact that the microbiome harboring the human body plays a critical role in maintaining human health and can influence treatments against various ailments. Human microbiome-based research contemplates the possibility of selecting and administering specific commensal bacterial strains to modulate the gut microbiota to attain favorable outcomes to the therapies. Consumption of probiotics and probiotic-based dietary supplements as functional foods has been a promising treatment strategy against various diseases. Clinical studies demonstrate that probiotic administration alters gut microbiota composition and instigates immune modulation in the host. The benefits of probiotics are reported to be strain-specific and depend on the host’s baseline immune competence. This review explores the role of probiotics in alleviating symptoms of allergy, cancer, cardio vascular (CV) diseases, diabetes mellitus (DM), bowel diseases (IBD and IBS), periodontal disease, diseases affecting liver and kidney, neuroinflammatory diseases, and viral infections. Also, it surveyed the broad spectrum bioactive compounds produced by probiotics and possible mechanisms that trigger the immune system.
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